How to find the Efficiency of Transformer from OC and SC Test

From OC Test, we can obtain no-load current and hence no-load power, Poc.
This no-load power consumed is equal to no-load iron-loss Pi.
(i.e.)
Poc = Pi.

From SC test, we get Psc, which is power consumed only at the transformer windings due to the winding resistance R. Therefore, the Power consumed is Isc2R (Full Load Copper loss).
 So, Psc = Isc2R = Pcu (Full Load Copper loss)

Now, Efficiency,
E=(O/P Power) * 100/(I/P Power
  =(O/P Power) * 100/((O/P Power)+Pi+Pcu)

Here, Full load O/P Power is nothing but (VA rating of Transformer) * (Power Factor).
This is applicable on both primary and secondary side.
Power Factor = cosθ
Therefore,
E= (VA rating x cosθ) * 100/((VA rating x cosθ) + Poc + Psc)     %
This is the efficiency of the transformer at Full load.

To obtain the efficiency at any load, VA rating can be multiplied with load fraction (n). Where load fraction is the ratio of required load to full load.
(In other words, if full-load current is I, then 50% full-load will take a current of I/2 and so on. This is indirectly depicted using load fraction 'n'.)

Therefore, Efficiency at any load can be obtained as follows,
E= (n * VA rating * cosθ) x 100/((n * VA rating * cosθ) + Poc + n2 x Psc)     %
 where, n=(given load)/(Rated load)

Disclaimer:
The above article doesn't give you any guarantee and the sole purpose of this article is to share my learning in the way I understood. Any comments to refine this article are welcome with great pleasure. Please report any breaking link by commenting below.

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