April 13, 2014

EE2252 - Power Plant Engineering - 2 Marks with answers

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1. State thermodynamic law:
1. Zeroth law refers to thermodynamic equilibrium and temperature 2. First law refers to heat, work and energy
3. Second law refers to entropy
2. State zeroth law of thermodynamics:
“Two systems in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other”
3. State First law of thermodynamics and energy conversion.
The first law of thermodynamics is often called as Law of conversion of energy.  This law suggests that energy can be transferred from one system to another in many forms.  Also, it cannot be destroyed or created.
4. State second and third law of thermodynamics:
The second law of thermodynamics another state variable called entropy.  In any closed system, the entropy of the system will either a thermodynamic process, the system can never completely return precisely the same state it was in before.  The third law of thermodynamics states that if all the thermal motion of molecules (kinetic energy) could be removed, a state called absolute zero will occur.  Absolute zero results in a temperature of 0 K or -273.15 celcius.
5. What is thermodynamic cycle?
A Thermodynamic cycle is a series of thermodynamic processes transferring heat and work, while varying pressure, temperature and other state variables, eventually returning a system to its initial state.
6. List the various thermodynamic processes:
1. Adiabatic process- a process with no heat transfer into or out of the system
2. Isochoric process- a process with no change in volume, in such case the system does no work
3. Isobaric process- a process with no change in pressure
4. Isothermal process- a process with no change in temperature
7. What is meant by power plant?
Power can be defined as the rate of flow of energy and state that a power plant is a unit built for production and delivery of a flow of mechanical work and electrical energy.  A machine or assembling of equipment that produces and delivers a flow of mechanical and electrical energy is a power plant.
8. List the factors of power plant performance.
The performance of a power plant can be expressed through some common performance factors as
1.  Heat rate 2.  Capacity factor 3.  Economic efficiency 4.  Load factor 5.  Operational efficiency
9. What are available energy sources for various power plants?
1.  Conventional energy sources or Non-renewable energy sources 2.  Non-conventional energy sources or Renewable energy sources
10. What are the major power limitations of conventional energy sources?
1.  Resources for power generation i. e, coal, gas etc. , are limited 2.  The hydro power is seasonal and varies depending upon the rainfall in the catchment areas 3.  Submersion of land area due to raise in water level                 4.  Centralized power generation and distribution of the same to long distances will result in high losses.
5.  The energy conversion process from thermal power projects results in emission of greenhouse gases
11. List out the various conventional and non-conventional power plant:
Types of conventional power plant:
1. Hydro power plant 2. Steam power plant 3. Nuclear power plant 4. Gas turbine power plant
Types of non-conventional power plant:
1. Tidal power plant 2. Wind power plant 3. Geothermal power plant 4. Solar power plant 5. Wave power plant
6. MHD Generation
12.  What is hydraulic/ Pneumatic type ash handling system?
The hydraulic system carried the ash with the flow of water high velocity through a channel and finally dumps into a sump.  The hydraulic system is divided into a low velocity and high velocity system.  The advantages of this system are that its clean, large ash handling capacity, considerable distance can be traversed, absence of working parts in contact with ash In pneumatic type ash handling is the most popular method used in medium level power plants.  It uses dense phase conveying system for conveying ash is totally enclosed without any leakage.  The system can convey materials up to distance of around 200 -250 mts.
13.  List the challenges of ash handling:
1. Indian coal contains high ash content generally which tends to be inconsistent.
2. Design of the system has to adequately cover anticipated variations and be capable of handling the worst scenario
3. System has to be environmentally friendly
4. System has to be energy efficient
14. What is crusher and its crushing method?
A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large solid chunks of raw materials into smaller chunks.  Crushers are commonly classified by the degree to which they treatment the starting material.
Crushing Methods: 1. Impact 2. Shear 3. Attrition 4. Compression
15. What are all the types of Mechanical drafts?
There are three types of mechanical drafts: They are:
1. Induced draft 2. Forced draft 3. Balanced draft
16. What is Deaeration?
Mechanical and chemical dearation is an integral part of modern boiler water protection and control.  Deaeration coupled with other aspects of external treatment, provides the best and highest quality feed water for boiler use.
17. What is the purpose of deaeration?
The purpose of deaeration are:
1.  To remove oxygen, carbon dioxide and other non-condensable gases from feed water.
2.  To heat the incoming makeup water and return condensate to an optimum temperature
3.  Minimizing solubility of undesirable gases
4.  Providing the highest temperature water for injection to the boiler.
18. What are the types of deaerators?
1.  Tary-Type Deaerating heaters 2.  Spray-Type Deaerating heaters
19. What is meant by cooling Towers?
It is a tower or building like device in which atmospheric air circulates in direct or indirect  contact with warmer water and water is thereby cooled.  Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid.
20. List the types of cooling towers:
1. Evaporative or wet cooling tower
2. Nonevaporative or dry cooling tower (a) Air cooled condensers (b)Air cooled exchangers
21. List the types of cooling functions to condense the steam:
1. Once-through wet cooling 2. Recirculating wet cooling 3. Dry cooling
22. List the factors to be considered while choosing a site for steam power station:
1. Supply of fuel 2. Availability of water 3. Transportation facilities 4. Cost and type of land 5. Nearness to load centres 6. Distance from populated area
23. List the thermal power plant in Tamilnadu.
Alathiur(2*18MW), Tamilnadu, Madras cements, Ennore(2*60MW,3*110MW) Tamilnadu Electricity Board
Neyveli(6*50MW,2*100MW) Tamilnadu Neyveli lignite corp Ltd.
24. Define super heater:
A Super heater is a device used to convert saturated steam into a dry steam used for power generation or processes steam which has been super-heated is known as superheated steam.
25. List the types of super heaters:
1.  Radiant super heater- absorb heat by radiation 2.  Convention super heater-absorb heat via a fluid 3.  Separately fixed super heaters- it is totally separated from the boiler

1. What is thermodynamic cycle? Explain the various thermodynamic cycle with relevant diagram.
2. State the thermodynamic laws with relevant examples.
3. Explain in detail about Rankine cycle.
4. Explain the functioning of thermal power plant with its layout
5. Explain in detail about Pulverized coal system
6. What is meant by Fluidized bed combustion? Explain in detail about various FBC systems.
7. Write short notes on material handling in thermal power plant.
8. Explain the function and various types of crushers.
9. Explain the various types of boilers.
10. Explain the condenser and cooling system of the thermal power plant.
11. What is meant by Deaeration and Deaearators? Explain in details.
12. Explain the purpose of cooling tower in thermal power plant.


1. Write the formula to calculate the hydraulic power produced by a hydro turbine:
The hydraulic power is given by the formula:
Where P is the hydraulic energy in watts
g is acceleration due to gravity (9. 81 m/s2)
ρ is water density
Q is the flow or discharge
H is the height of fall of water or head in meter.
2. List any four advantages of hydro power:
1. Water source is perennially available 2. Running cost is very low 3. Non-polluting
4. Power generation can be switched on and off in a very short period.
3. List any four disadvantages of hydropower:
1.  High capital investment and low rate of return 2.  Gestation period is very large
3.  Power generation depends on availability of water 4.  Transmission cost and losses are high
4. List the factors to be considered for the selection of site for hydro power plant:
1. Availability of water and water head 2. Accessibility of site 3. Water storage capacity
4. Distance from the load center 5. Type of land
5. List the classification of dams:
1.  Based on their functions:
(a) storage dams (b) Diversion dams (c) Detention dams
2. Based on their shape:
(a) Trapezoidal dams (b) Arch dams
3. Based on the materials of construction:
(a)Earth dams (b) Rock pieces dams (c) Stone masonry dams (d) concrete dams (e) RCC dams (f)Timber and Rubber dams
4. Based on hydraulic design:
(a) Overflow type dam (b) Non-overflow type dam
5. Based on structural Design:
(a) Gravity dam (b) Arch dam (c) Buttresses dam
6. What is a surge tank?
A surge tank is a small reservoir in which the water level rises or falls to reduce the pressure  swings during opening and closing of inlet valve.  The surge tank is not required for run off plants and medium head plants.
7. What is a Draft tube?
The draft tube allows the turbine to be set above the tail race to facilitate inspection and maintenance.  It also regains the major portion of the kinetic energy at the runner outlet by diffuser action.  The draft tube can be a straight conical tube or an allow tube.
8. List the equipments present in a power house:
1.  Hydraulic turbines 2.  Electric generators 3.  Governors 4.  Gate valves and reheat valves 5.  Water circulating pumps 6.  Air duct 7.  Switch board and instruments 8.  Storage batteries and cranes
9. List the types of hydro power plants based on availability of head;
1.  High head power plant(head>100m) 2.  Medium head power plant(30m-100m) 3.  Low head power plants(head<30m)
10. List the advantages of pumped storage power plants:
1.  Increases the peak load capacity at low cost 2.  High operating efficiency
3. Better load factor 4. Independence of steam flow conditions
11. List the advantages of impulse turbine:
1. Greater tolerance of sand and other particles in the water 2. Better access to working parts
3. No pressure seals around the shaft 4. Easier to fabricate and maintain
5. Better part-flow efficiency
12. List any four pumped storage hydro power plants in India:
1.  Bihar, Maharastra, 150 MW,  2.  Kadamparai, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 400MW, 3.  Nagarjuna Sagar PH, Andhra Pradesh,810MW, 4.  Purulia pumped storage project, Avodhva hills,West Bengal, 900MW, 5.  Srisailam Left Bank PH, Andhra Pradesh,900 MW, 6.  Tehri Dam, Uttranchal, 1000 MW
13. What are the essential elements of hydro power plant?
1.  Catchment area 2.  Reservation 3.  Dam 4.  Surge tanks 5.  Draft tubes 6.  Power house 7.  Switched for transmission of power
14. What is meant by catchment area and explain its function:
The whole area behind the dam is called the catchment area.  The rain water in the area will be drained into the dam through a dam or river.
15. Explain Reservoir:
A reservoir may be natural, like a lake on a mountain or artificially built by erecting a dam across a river.
16. Define surge tank:
A Surge tank is a small reservoir in which the water level rises swings during opening and closing of inlet valve.
17. What is power house?
A power house is a stable structure which houses the equipment in the power plant
18. What is meant by pumped storage power plant?
The pumped storage plants are used for load balancing.  During peak load water is used to work  on turbines to produce electricity.  Water after working in turbines is stored in the tail race reservoir.
19.  What is mini Hydro plants?
The mini power plants operate with 5m-20m head and produce about 1 MW to 5 MW of power.
20. What is micro hydro plants?
The micro power plants require a head less than 5m and produce 0. 1 MW to 1 MW.
21. Define turbines:
A turbine converts energy in the form of falling water into rotating shaft power.  The selection of best turbine for any particular site depends on the site characteristics.
22.  What are the disadvantages of impulse turbine?
They are unsuitable for low-head sites because of their low specific speeds.
23. What is pelton turbine?
A pelton turbine consists of a set of specially spread buckets mounted on a periphery of a circular disc.  It is turned by jets of water which are discharged from one or more nozzles.
24. What is meant by reaction turbines?
Francis turbine and propeller turbines are the reaction turbines.  The reaction turbines rotate faster than impulse turbine.
25. What is meant by propeller turbine?
The basic propeller turbine consists of a propeller.  Inside it consist of a continuation of the penstock tube.
26. What is meant by Kaplan turbine?
The pitch of the propeller blades together with wicket gate adjustment, enables reasonable efficiency to be maintained under part flow conditions.  Such turbines are called as Kaplan turbines.
27. Define twin runners:
Two runners can be placed on the same shaft either side by side or on opposite sides of the generator.  This configuration is unusual and would only be used if the number of jets per runner had maximized.
28. State the advantages of impulse turbine over reaction turbine:
Impulse turbine are usually cheaper than reaction turbine because there is no need for a specialist pressure casing.
29. Explain impulse turbine in terms of heads?
1)High head- pelton Turgo 2)Medium head- Multi jet pelton turgo 3)Low head- cross flow
30. Explain reaction turbine in terms of head:
1) High head- Francis 2) Medium head- Propeller 3) Low head- Kaplan

1. Enlist the merits and demerits of hydraulic power plant.
2. Sketch a layout of hydraulic power plant suitable for high head.  Indicate the essential elements in that power plant and explain their function.
3. Discuss the factors to be considered in selecting the turbines for hydroelectric power Plants.


1. What is meant by radioactivity?
It refers to the German name of Radio-Activitat.  Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.  The nucleus emits particles or electromagnetic rays during this process.
2. What is the unit of Radioactivity?
1. Roentgen 2. RAD(Radiation Absorbed Dose) 3. RBE(Relative Biological Effectiveness) 4. REM(Roentgen Equivalent in Man) 5. Gray(GY)-100 rads 6. Sievert(SV)
3. What are the types of Radioactive decay?
1. Alpha decay 2. Beta decay 3. Gamma decay 4. Poistron emission(Beta positive decay) 5. Electron capture
4. Define-Decay timing.
The number of decay events – d N expected to occur in a small interval of time dt is proportional to the number of atoms present.  If N is the number of atoms, then the probability of decay(-d N/N) is proportional to dt.
5. What is Uranium enrichment?
In most types of reactor, a higher concentration of uranium is used to make fuel rod.  This produced by a process termed enrichment.  The enriched uranium containing more than natural 0. 7% U-235.
6. What are the two ways of uranium enrichment?
1. Gas centrifuge process 2.  Gas diffusion
7. What is the purpose of reprocessing of nuclear waste?
The used fuel contains 96% uranium,1% plutonium and 3% radioactive wastes.  Reprocessing is used to separate the waste from the uranium and plutonium which can be recycled into new fuel.  The reprocessing effectively reduces the volume of waste and limits the need to mine new supplies of uranium, so that extending the time of resources.
8. Define Nuclear Fission.
An atom’s nucleus can be split apart.  When this is done a tremendous amount of energy is released.  The energy is both heat and light energy.  This energy ,when let out slowly can be harnessed to generate electricity.
9. Define Nuclear Fusion.
Fusion means joining smaller nuclei to make a larger nucleus.  The sun uses nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms.  This gives off heat and other radiation.
10. What is Neutron life time?
The prompt neutron lifetime, is the average time between the emission of neutrons and either their absorption in the system or their escape from the system.  The term lifetime is used because the emission of a neutron is often considered its birth, and the subsequent absorption is considered its death.
11. What is Uranium-235 chain Reactor?
In a chain reaction, particles released by the splitting of the atom go off and strike other uranium atoms splitting those.  Those particles given off split still other atoms in a chain reaction.  If an least one neutron from U-235 fission strikes another nucleus and causes it to fission, Then the chain reaction will continue.
12. What is four factor formula?
The four factor formula is used in nuclear engineering to determine the multiplication of a nuclear chain reaction in an infinite medium.  The formula is: - Reproduction Factor - The thermal utilization factor - The resonance escape probability - The fast fission factor
13. List the four types of radiation associated with nuclear fission.
1.  Alpha radiation 2.  Beta radiation 3.  Gamma radiation 4.  Neutron radiation
14. Define Alpha radiation.
This is basically the atomic nucleus of the element(He) consisting of two protons and two neutrons.  It is not very penetrative and the danger to man arises if an alpha emitting element, such as plutonium, then the alpha radiation be very damaging.
15. Define Beta radiation.
Beta radiation consists of electrons or their positively charged counterparts.  This can penetrate the skin, but not very far.
16. Define Gamma radiation.
Gamma radiation is penetrative in a manner similar to X-rays and has similar physical properties.  It can be stopped only by thick shields of lead or concrete.
17. Define Neutron radiation.
Neutron radiation consists of the neutrons emitted during the fission process.  Neutrons are also very penetrative, but less so then gamma-radiation.
18. Define water as moderator.
Neutrons from fission have very high speeds and must slowed greatly by water moderation to maintain the chain raction.  The Uranium-235 is enriched to 2. 5-3. 5% to allow ordinary water to be the moderator.  Enough spontaneous events occur to initiate a chain reaction if the proper moderation and fuel density is provided.
19. List the types of Nuclear reactors.
The reactors are classified based on the following:
1. Type of fuel used 2.  Neutron flux spectrum 3.  The coolant
20. List the various widespread power plant reactor types.
1. Pressurized water reactor(PWR) 2. Boling water reactor(BWR) 3.  Pressurized Heavy water reactor(PHWR)
4.  Liquid metal fast Breeder Reactors(LMFBR) 5.  High temperature Gas cooled reactors(HTGCR)
21. What is pressurized water reactors(PWR)?
The PWR belongs to the lidht water type.  The moderator and the coolant are both light water(H2O).  The cooling water circulates in two loops, which are fully separated from one  another.  PWR keep water under pressure, so the water heats but does not boil even at the high operating temperature.
22. What is boiling water reactor(BWR)?
In a boiling water reactor, Light water plays the role of moderator and coolant as well.  Part of the water boils away in the reactor pressure vessel, thus a mixture of water and steam leaves the reactor core.
23. What is Molten Salt Reactor(MSR)?
A molten salt reactor is a type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a molten salt.  Molten salt refers to a salt that is in the liquid phase that is normally a solid at standard temperature ionic liquid, although technically molten salts are a class of ionic liquids.
24. Nuclear Power plant safety.
Radiation doses can be controlled through the following procedures:
1. The handling of equipment via remote in the core of the reactor 2.  Physical shielding 3.  Limit on the time a worker spends in areas with significant radiation levels 4.  Monitoring of individual doses and of the working environment 5.  Safety mechanism of a Nuclear power reactor
25.  List the Nuclear power plants in India.
1.  Kaiga(3*22MWPHWR), Karnataka 2.  Kakrapar(2*22MWPHWR), Gujarat 3.  Kudankulam(2*100MWPWR), Tamilnadu 4.  Madras(2*17MWPHWR), Tamilnadu
26. Define mean generation time.
It is the average time from a neutron emission to a capture results in fission.  The mean generation time is different from prompt neutron lifetime because the mean generation time only includes neutron absorption that leads to fission reaction.
1.  Explain in detail about the nuclear radioactivity and its effects.
2.  Derive the expression of the radioactivity decay rate
3.  With relevant diagram explain the nuclear life cycle
4.  Explain the nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
5.  List out the various components of nuclear power plant and explain briefly
6.  What is the purpose of nuclear power reactor? List the types of nuclear power reactor and explain any one in detail.
7.  Explain the following:
1. Pressurized water reactor
2. Boiling water reactor
3. Gas-cooled, Graphite moderated reactor
8.  Comparison of nuclear power reactors
9.  Explain the nuclear power plant challenges.
10.  List out the advantages and disadvantages of the nuclear power plant.


1. List the advantages of gas turbine power plant.
1.  Low capital cost 2.  High reliability 3.  Flexibility in operation 4.  Capability to quick start 5.  High efficiency
2. List the major components of gas turbine.
1. Compressor 2.  Combustion chamber and 3.  Turbine
3. List the types of gas turbine power plants.
1. Open cycle gas turbine power plant 2.  Closed cycle gas turbine power plant
4. List the disadvantages of gas turbine power plant.
1. No load and Partial load efficiency is low 2. High sensitive to component efficiency
3. The efficiency depends on ambient pressure and ambient temperature
4. High air rate is required to limit the maximum inlet air temperature.  Hence exhaust losses are high
5.  Air and gas filter is required to prevent dust into the combustion chambers.
5. Define regenerator efficiency.
The regenerator efficiency is defined as: =Actual temperature rise of air/ Maximum temperature rise possible
6. List the factors which affect the performance of gas turbine power plants.
1.  Part load efficiency 2.  Fuel consumption 3.  Air mass flow rate 4.  Thermal efficiency 5.  Regeneration
7. What are the working fluids in gas turbine?
1. Air 2. Helium 3. Argon 4. Carbon dioxide
8. List the various types of diesel plants.
Based on number of strokes:
(a) Two stroke diesel engine (b) Four srtoke diesel engine
Based on orientation:
(a) Horizontal diesel engine (b) Vertical diesel engine
Based on number of cylinders:
(a) single cylinder (b) Multi cylinder
And other type like naturally aspirated, superheated etc. ,
9. List the components of diesel power plant.
1. Diesel engine 2.  Air intake system 3.  Exhaust system 4.  Fuel system 5.  Cooling system 6.  Lubricating system
7.  Starting of engine
10. List the various functions of fuel injection system.
1. It filters the fuel 2. Monitor the correct quantity of fuel to be injected 3.  Timing of the injection process
4.  Regulates the fuel supply 5.  Fine atomization of fuel oil 6.  Distributes the automized fuel properly inside the combustion chamber
11. List the classification of oil injection system.
(a) Common rail injection system (b) Individual pump injection system (c) Distributor system
12. List the reason why the cooling system is necessary for a diesel engine.
1.  To avoid damages and overheating of piston 2.  To avoid uneven expansion which results in cracking
3.  To avoid pre-ignition and detonation or knocking 4.  To avoid reduction in volumetric efficiency and power output of the engine
13. What are the methods of cooling system used?
1.  Air cooling 2.  Water cooling
14. List the methods adopted for circulating the water in a cooling system.
1.  Thermosiphon cooling 2.  Forced cooling by pump 3.  Thermostat cooling 4.  Pressurised water cooling
5.  Evaporative cooling

15. What are the important functions of a lubricating system?
1.  Lubricating 2.  Cooling 3.  Cleaning 4.  Sealing 5.  Noise absorption
16. List the various types of lubricating system used in diesel engine.
1.  Mist lubricating system 2.  Wet sump lubrication system 3.  Dry sump lubrication system
17. What are the starting methods of diesel engine?
1.  By an auxiliary engine 2.  By an electric motor 3.  By compressed air
18. List any four advantages of diesel power plant.
1.  It is easy to design and install 2.  It is easily available in standard capacities
3.  They can respond to load changes 4.  They have less stand by losses
19. List any four disadvantages of diesel power plant.
1. High operating cost 2. High maintenance and lubrication cost 3. Capacity is restricted 4. Noise pollution
20. List any four applications of diesel power plant.
1.  Used as peak load plants 2.  Suitable for mobile plants 3.  Used as standby units 4.  Used as emergency plant

1. With PV and TS diagram explain the effect of intercooling, reheating and regeneration in a gas turbine plant
2.  Enlist the advantages and disadvantages of diesel power plant and discuss the essential components of the diesel power plant with neat layout.
3. Sketch the layout of a diesel engine power plant
4. Write down the application of diesel power plant
5. Discuss the working of a modern gas turbine power plant of capacity, 30MW with an illustration or two.  
6. Explain the Brayton cycle and derive an expression for the work ratio.


1. What are the components of solar energy?
1. Collector 2.  Storage unit
2. What is concentration ratio?
Concentration ratio is defined as the ratio between the aperture area and the receiver absorber area of the collector.
3. List the various types of solar energy collectors.
1. Stationary collectors (or) Non- concentrating
(a) Flat plate collectors (b) Compound parabolic collectors (c) Evacuated tube collectors
2. Sun tracking concentrating collector
(a) single axis tracking (b) Two-axis tracking
4. List any four applications of solar collectors.
1. Solar water heating 2.  Solar space heating systems 3.  Solar refrigeration 4.  Industrial process heat systems
5. List the four important solar systems.
1. Low temperature cycles using flat plat collector or solar pond 2. Power tower or central receiver system
3. Distributed collector system 4.  Concentrating collectors for medium and high temperature cycle
6. List the advantages of solar Energy.
1. Solar energy is free from pollution
2. They collect solar energy optically and transfer it to a single receiver, thus minimizing thermal-energy transport requirements
3. They typically achieve concentration ratios of 300 to 1500 and so are highly efficient both in collecting energy and converting it to electricity.
4. The plant requires little maintenance or help after setup
5.  It is economical
7. List any four disadvantages of solar energy.
1. Available in day time only 2. Need storage facilities 3. It needs a backup power plant 4. Keeping back up plants hot includes an energy cost which includes coal burning
8. List the classification of OTEC based on location.
1.  Land based plant 2.  Shelf based plant 3.  Floating plant
9. List the classification of OTEC based on cycle.
1. Open cycle 2. Closed cycle 3. Hybrid cycle
10. List any four benefits of OTEC.
1. Air-conditioning 2. Chilled soil agriculture 3. Aquaculture 4. Desalination
11. List any four disadvantages of OTEC.
1. Degradation of heat exchanger performance as dissolved gases.
2. Degradation of heat exchanger performance by microbial fouling
3. Improper sealing
4. Parasitic power consumption by exhaust compressor
12. List the various components of wind energy system.
1. Rotor 2. Gearbox 3. Enclosure 4. Tailvane
13. What are the two basic design of turbines?
1. Vertical axis (or) Egg beater style
2. Horizontal axis (propeller style) machines
14. Write down the various types of wind power plants.
1. Remote 2. Hybrid 3. Grid connected
15. List any four advantages of wind turbine.
1. Inexhaustible fuel source 2. No pollution 3. Excellent supplement to other renewable source 4. Its free
16. List the disadvantages of wind power generation.
1. Low energy production 2. Expensive maintenance
17. What are the various ways of creating tidal energy?
1. Tidal Barrier 2. Tidal fences 3. Tidal turbines
18. List the various types of turbines used in tidal power station.
1. Buld turbine 2. Rim turbine 3. Tubular turbines
19. What are the components of tidal power station?
1. Barrage 2. Turbines 3. Sluices 4. Embankments
20. List any four advantages of tidal power generation.
1. Renewable and sustainable energy 2. No liquid or Solid pollution 3. Little visual impact 4. Reduces dependence upon fossil fuels
21. List the limitations of tidal energy.
1. Orientation problem 2. Requires storage devices 3. Available at a lower rating and time 4. High capital cost
22. What are the main parts of geothermal power plant?
1. Production well 2. Vaporizer 3. Circulating pump 4. Expansion turbine 5. Generator 6. Condenser 7. Transformer
23. What are the classifications of geothermal energy conversion system?
1. Single cycle geothermal power plant 2. Binary cycle power plant
24. What are the applications of geothermal energy?
1. Generation of electric power 2. Space heating for building 3. Industrial process heat
25. What are the advantages of geothermal energy?
1. Cheaper 2. Versatile in its use 3. Delivers greater amount of energy
26. What are the disadvantages of geothermal energy?
1. Drilling operation is noisy 2. It needs large areas of exploitation of geothermal energy 3. Low overall power production efficiency.
27. What are the classifications of MHD system?
1. Open cycle systems
2.  Closed cycle systems
(a) Seeded inert gas systems (b)Liquid metal systems
28. What are the advantages of MHD systems?
1. Large amount of power is generated 2. No moving parts, so more reliable.  3. Closed cycle system produces power, free of pollution 4. Ability to reach its full power as soon as started.
29. List the classification of oil injection system.
(a) Common rail injection system (b) Individual pump injection system (c) Distributor system
30. List the disadvantages of MHD systems.
1. Needs very large magnets(high expenses) 2. Very high friction and heat transfer losses
3. It suffers from the reverse flow of electrons through the conducting fluids around the ends of the magnetic field.

1. With a neat diagram, explain the working principle of the MHD power plant
2. Explain the spring tides and neap tides.  Discuss the different tidal power schemes and configurations with neat sketches
3. Explain the different types of geothermal energy sources.
4. Explain with a sketch the central receiver concept of solar energy system.
5. Discuss the advantages and limitations of MHD power plant
6. Sketch and explain the two pool tidal power plant .
7. Describe with a help of neat sketch, the working of a solar thermal receiver system plant and enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of concentrating collectors over flat collectors. 

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